Biology Week 24 - Mammals

Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3 | Lab | Weekly Quiz | Quizstar

  1. Mammal
  2. Hair
  3. Mammary gland
  4. Diaphragm
  5. Monotremes
  6. Marsupials
  7. Eutherians
  8. Placenta
  9. Oviparous
  10. Gestation period
  1. Teeth
  2. Enamel
  3. Dentine
  4. Pulp cavity
  5. Cementum
  6. Root canal
  7. Viviparous
  8. Respiratory system
  9. Digestive system
  10. Circulatory system


  1. Urogenital system
  2. Crown
  3. Root
  4. Incisor
  5. Canine
  6. Bicuspid
  7. Molar
  8. Antler
  9. Horn


TheAndrew the mouseMammals

click to find the answer to today's question Almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae. Which one does not?

Mammal characteristics:link to a local webpage

Heather the Koala

click for a career
Game Ranger
See where mammals fit into Earth's history. link to an Internet Website

The Class Mammalia is divided into roughly 26 Orders. link to an Internet Website

Dichotomous key for mammal to a local webpage

3 reproductive strategies in mammals:

Other important terms:

Day 1 Assignment - Mammals
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

  1. List the main characteristics used to define the class Mammalia.
  2. What is a dental formula? what is it used for? What is your dental formula? Who has more teeth primitive Eutherians or Marsupials? How many?
  3. Describe the structure of a mammary gland.
  4. Study this website about Lactation Biology link to an Internet Websitefrom the University of Illinois to answer the following questions:
    1. For most species what are the major components of milk?
    2. What type of mammals have the highest percentage of fat in their milk?

  5. Of the 26 orders of mammals, list 2 of the orders, with an animal example (common and scientific name), that are not native to the United States. (example: order - primates    common name - chimpanzee  scientific name - Pan troglodytes)
  6. Name the three type of reproductive strategies found in Mammals.
  7. What is the difference between oviparous and viviparous mammals?
  8. What animal has the distinction of being the only poisonous mammal in North America?
  9. How long, in days, is the gestation period for humans? How does this compare with elephants?
  10. From another web page cute and paste a mammalian tooth and label its parts into this assignment.

Honors biology: along with the section above complete the section below

  1. Visit this site link to an Internet Website on the life of mammals. Open the Mammal maker game and read the directions carefully. Use the beginner level to practice then move to the advanced level and complete the 10 levels as fast as you can. Record the names of each mammal from the 10 advanced levels here. What was your score? Did you make the high score table?

Day 2

click to find the answer to today's question Does an armadillolink to an Internet Website have hair?

antlers of white-tail deer Antlers and Horns horns of bull cow

Antlers are found in most species of deer. link to an Internet Website They are made of solid bone and grow from a bony base on the skull. Antlers begin growing in the spring as skin-covered projections. The dermal covering, or "velvet," is rich in blood vessels and nerves. When the antlers reach full size, the velvet dies and is rubbed off. The antlers are used in combat by males during the breeding season, and drop off afterwards. Antlers vary from simple spikes to enormous, branched structures. In most species, only males have antlers (both sexes have antlers in caribou).

All bovids have horns, link to an Internet Website at least in males and often in females. Horns can vary from simple spikes to extremely long, curved structures - but always unbranched. Bovid horns are made up of a permanent bony core covered with a layer of keratin, which is never shed. The horn picture above shows the hollow area where the bony core would be found.

Day 2 Assignment - Mammals
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

  1. Study these two websites and write at least one paragraph describing how a rhinoceros horn is different from a cow horn. link to an Internet Websitelink to an Internet Website

  2. Study the webpage for each of the following mammals. Describe the economic importance, both positive and negative for each animal.
    link to an Internet WebsiteOpossum
    link to an Internet WebsiteNine-Banded Armadillo
    link to an Internet WebsiteWhitetail Deer
    link to an Internet WebsiteDomestic Horse
    link to an Internet WebsiteEastern Cottontail Rabbit
    link to an Internet WebsiteFox Squirrel
    link to an Internet WebsiteShort-Tailed Shrew
    link to an Internet WebsiteStriped Skunk

  1. Right click on this(North American deer) and "save target as" to you desktop. After video has downloaded watch the video and complete the questions below.
    1. How many different types of deer live in the world today? How many are found in North America?
    2. How much can a moose weigh?
    3. How many stomachs does a deer have?
    4. What are browsers?
    5. How many toes does a deer have?
    6. What is velvet?
    7. Give different reasons why horns are not the same as antlers.
    8. What animal is the largest member of the deer species?
    9. How deep can a moose dive in order to get food?
    10. What type of deer live in the largest herds?
    11. Explain the difference in living habitat between the white tail deer and the black tail deer?
    12. How soon can a fawn stand up after birth?
    13. Are deer in danger of extinction?


  2. This section on mammals will include a dissection lab for a fetal pig. Pre-lab preparation is very important in that it will aid you in successfully completing the dissection. Visit the lab link to a local webpage and read the directions carefully.

    Next complete the virtual pig dissection linked in the directions. Only fill out the answers for the following parts: (system study guides)

    • Digestive system
    • Circulatory system
    • Respiratory system
    • Reproductive system  (how can you determine the sex of your pig?)

    Attach the completed V.P.D. (virtual pig dissection) questions to this assignment.

    Honors biology: Add the following task for question 4 only. (regular biology should still do question 5)

    Take a look at the power point linked in the directions of the dissection lab. View those parts that pertain to our dissection.


  3. For reference during the dissection, search for labeled diagrams of the following:
    • External fetal pig
    • Digestive system
    • Circulatory system
    • Respiratory system
    • Reproductive system

    Cut and paste them into a format that will allow you to use them as reference on the dissection lab.


Day 3

click to find the answer to today's question What is the largest part of the mammal brain?

There are some 27 species of bats found in Arizona - meet Alex the bat Bats link to an Internet Websitelink to an Internet Website are the only mammal that can actually fly.

The order name Chiroptera link to an Internet Website literally means hand-wing, which is an indication that the fingers link to a local picture are the origin the the bat's true wing. link to an Internet Website

Mammal Skulls:link to a local webpage rodent skull

Mammal skulls have the same basic bones, but one of the most accurate ways to identify a mammal is by its skull. Compare the shape of these two skulls: coyote link to a local picture and German Shepard. link to a local picture You might think the skulls of these animals would be shaped very much alike, but it is easy to see the difference in the two. Notice that the coyote skull slopes gently from the top of the head to the snout while the dog skull slopes very quickly.

link to a local webpage with useful information Mammal brains:link to a local webpagelink to an Internet Website

Mammal brains are the most highly developed in the animal kingdom. While the shape and size differ from species to species, all mammal brains are essentially like yours.

          Day 3 Assignment - mammals
          This assignment must be turned in by the end of class today to receive credit.
          Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

          1. Find a picture of a mammal skull on the Internet. Insert the picture onto a PowerPoint slide or word document. Label the following parts on the skull:
            1. orbit (eye socket)
            2. cranium (brain case)
            3. incisors
            4. canines
            5. cheek-teeth (molars & premolars)
            6. nasal bone
            7. zygomatic arch
            8. bony crest (sagittal crest & occipital crest)
            9. lower jaw (mandible)
            10. auditory bullae

          2. Use the links above to find a diagram of a human brain. Cut and paste the brain into this assignment and label all the brain parts.
          3. Use the links above to search for and compare the following mammal brains. How are they similar and how are they different? How do they compare to the human brain?
            1. bat
            2. elephant
            3. zebra

          4. Use either of these links link to an Internet Website  link to an Internet Website to identify these mammal skulls: link to a local picturelink to a local picturelink to a local picturelink to a local picture

          5. What is the heart rate of the Little Brown Bat link to an Internet Website when hibernating?

          6. What is the Arizona State Mammal?

Research Links:

          - The Animal Diversity Web
          1. Species Identification - Audubon Field Guides Online
          2. Orders of Mammals - The Tree of Life Project
          3. Mammals of Texas - Texas Parks and Wildlife
          4. Mammal Species of The World - National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
          5. Mammal Skulls - Will's Skull Page
          6. All About Bats - Bat Conservation International
          7. More Bat Links - The Birmingham Zoo
          8. Squirrels - Illinois Natural History Survey
          9. Beavers - Illinois Natural History Survey
          10. Bobcats - Illinois Natural History Survey
          11. All About Shrews - The Shrew Site
          12. Guide to the World's Hoofed Mammal Species - by Brent Huffman
          13. Deer Net - University of Alberta
          14. Legacy of the Horse - International Museum of The Horse
          15. Fossil Horses - Florida Museum of Natural History
          16. Monotremata - University of Tasmania
                            Biology Class










                    Unlike most mammals which have seven, the armadillo has nine cervical vertebrae.










                    There is a lot of hair on an armadillo's body.
                    Hair covers the belly and grows between the plates of the shell.










                    The largest part of a mammal brain is the cerebrum, containing over 50% of the animal's nerve cells.