Biology Week 3: Cells and the Cell Cycle


Day 1-2 | Day 3 | Day 4-5 | Lab1 | Lab2 |  Review |Weekly Quiz | Quizstar

  • Cells
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes
  • Plant cell
  • Animal cell
  • Organelles
  • Cell membrane
  • Osmosis
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Cell wall
  • Ribosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Vacuole
  • Plastid
  • Synthesis
  • Replication
  • Mitosis
  • Interphase
  • Prophase
  • Tetrad
  • Cell cycle
  • Cell Theory
  • Protocell
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Cytokinesis
  • Meiosis
  • Hypotonic
  • Hypertonic
  • Hypertonic
  • Isotonic

Cells:
The Building Blocks of Life

click to find the answer to today's question

What cell part is never found in animal cells?

cell organells

The Cell Theory:link to an Internet Website

  1. All living things are made of cells.
  2. Cells are the basic units of life.
  3. Cells come only from other cells.

Protocells:

One theory of the origins of cells states that the first life on earth consisted of several types of tiny protocells, cell-like organisms. These organisms were able to survive and reproduce in a very limited environment because of their simplicity. Over time, some of these protocells came together and shared their specialization in a symbiotic relationship. These colonies of protocells eventually became the cells we know today. link to a local picture

Types of cells:

  • Prokaryotes - cells with no nucleus or organelles with membranes.
    Bacteria and blue-green bacteria are prokaryotic cells.
  • Eukaryotes - cells that contain a nucleus and organelles surrounded by a membrane.
    The cells of protozoa, algae, fungi, plants, and animals are eukaryotic cells.

 

click for a career
Clinical Lab
Technician

Except for bacteria, all organisms we will study this year will be eukaryotes.

Plant cells and animal cells are similar, but do not have exactly the same cell parts and shape.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cell organelles: components of cells with specific functions. link to an Internet Website

·         Cell membranecell membrane link to a local picture  (bio lab 054)

 

 

 

Visit this site on Diffusion and Osmosis link to an Internet Website

1.  What is the animation in the box showing? (explain in at least one paragraph) You may need to hit refresh on your browser to reactivate the animation.

2.  Watch the animation of water molecules moving across a selectively permeable membrane. Why are the water molecules moving to the right? Hint: Osmosis (Explain in at least a paragraph)

3.     Look at the section on "Types of Solutions". Explain what would happen to a cell if it was put in the following solutions:

·         isotonic

·         hypertonic

·        hypotonic

4.   What is Active Transport and when is it needed by the cell?

For more help on Osmosis visit this site and try out the simulations link to an Internet Website

 

Honors biology: Visit the following site link to an Internet Website   

1.      Read through each of the concepts (1-5)

2.      Complete each of the practice items within each concept

3.      Print completed:  concept 1 practice & concept 4 practice.

4.      Complete the practice quiz at the end, must get a 100%  (print it off)

         

 

  • Cytoplasm
    • A thick, aqueous solution of salts surrounding the organelles inside the cell membrane.
    • Nutrients and minerals spread through the cytoplasm to all parts of the cell.
    • The constant motion of this gel-like substance is called cytoplasmic streaming.

 

  • Nucleus
    • The structure inside the cell that directs cell activities.
    • Contains the DNA of a cell.

 

  • Cell wall

·         On the outside of some cells, bacteria and plants, this structure functions for support and protection.

·         There are pores in the cell wall allowing substances to come in contact with the cell membrane.

·         Types of cell walls:

a.       Primary cell wall - formed during cell growth, it is composed of parallel layers of cellulose and pectin. This structure allows the cell to expand as it grows. While it does provide support, it is not nearly as strong as the secondary cell wall.

b.      Secondary cell wall - formed after cell growth stops, it is composed of interwoven cellulose and lignin fibers. This structure is very strong, but does not give. It gives plants their "woody" characteristic.

 

  • Ribosome
    • The sites of protein synthesis in a cell.
    • These small, spherical structures are the most numerous organells in almost all cells.
    • Some ribosomes produce protein to be used within the cell and some produce protein that is "exported" to other parts of an organism.

 

  • Endoplasmic reticulum link to a local picture
    • A membrane system of folded sacs and tunnels in the cytoplasm.
    • Rough "ER" is covered with ribosomes. It is common in cells that export proteins and directs the proteins flow.
    • Smooth "ER" as few or no ribosomes. It functions as a pathway for molecules to follow.

 

  • Golgi Apparatus
    • A stack of membranes or sacs that acts to prepare substances for export from the cell.
    • Once the Golgi apparatus has enclosed the final product in a vesicle, or pouch, the product is sent through the cell membrane.

 

  • Mitochondria
    • Respiration centers of a cell.
    • Large organelles scattered through most cells, they are most numerous in cells that use a lot of energy like liver and muscle cells.

 

  • Lysosome
    • Digestive centers of a cell.
    • They produce many different types of enzymes and digest things from food particles to a cell's own worn out parts.

 

  • Vacuole
    • Most common in plant cells, they are storage sites within a cell.

 

 

  • Plastid
    • Pigment producing organelle in cells.

link to a local webpage with useful information

Day 1 Assignment - Cells and the Cell Cycle
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

1.      What is the cell theory? Who proposed the cell theory and in what year?

2.      What is a Protocell?

3.      What are the differences between a prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell. Include a diagram of each to support your answer.

4.      How are animal cells and plant cells different?

5.      What is the function of the cell membrane?

6.      What does a phospholipid look like? Why is it an important part of animal cells?

7.      Where does respiration take place within a cell?

8.      What is Osmosis? How are active and passive transport within a cell different?

9.      Diffusion and Osmosis: Complete the "To Do" Activity above and place the questions and answer here.

10.  Visit this virtual cell web page link to an Internet WebsiteRead the "how to use link" Using the virtual cell web page complete this handout: Word doc. format link to a local webpageHtml format: link to a local webpage

 

Honors biology:  Complete 1-9 above and this section (for number 9 only complete honors section)

 

1.      Right click on this The living cell and "save target as" to your desk top. Once it has finished downloading view the video and complete the video quiz. Write the video quiz questions and answers with today’s assignment.

 

2.      Build a cell: See link for detailslink to a local webpage (This portion of the assignment will have a separated due date and be completed outside of class)

 

construction worker

 


Cells and the Cell Cycle: Day 2

click to find the answer to today's question

What group of cells in the human body does not have a nucleus?

Size of living things:

The smallest known living thing on Earth is a bacteria in the genus Coxiella. These bacteria are about 8 millionths of an inch (0.2 micrometers) in diameter. Their small size means these bacteria contain only 100 million to 120 million atoms. While this may seem like a large number, keep in mind that the human body has over 5 Billion cells. It is believed that fewer atoms would be unable to build the structures needed to store information and carry out the metabolic processes needed for life.

The largest known animal is the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. It is known to reach lengths over 100 feet (30+ meters) and weigh 120 tons. The chart below indicates that all animal cells are about 10 micrometers in diameter. This means that the cells of a blue whale and a human are essentially the same size.

relative sizes of cells and their components

Day 2 Assignment - Cells and the Cell Cycle
This assignment must be turned in by the end of class tomorrow to receive credit.
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

Question: Would a cell survive if it grew to be the size of your head?

§       Draw a table like this one on your paper or print this word doc. of the table link to a local webpageand use your data and calculations to complete it.

§       Measure and record the diameter of a large marble, a ping-pong ball, and a baseball, in centimeters.

§       Calculate the surface area and volume of each object.

·       Show how you set up the following calculations on your paper.

·       Use 3.14 for   in these calculations.

·       The formula for calculating the surface area of a sphere is

surface area = 4  r 2

·       The formula for calculating the volume of a sphere is

V = 4/3  r 3

 

Honors biology: After completing the table use the back to do the following:

 

1. Perform the same calculations for a human cheek cell and compare it to the others.

 

diameter of marble

cm 

 

surface area of marble
cm2

 

 

volume of marble
cm3

 

 

What is the ratio of surface area to volume?

 

 

diameter of ping-pong ball
cm

 

 

surface area of ping-pong ball
cm2

 

 

volume of ping-pong ball
cm3

 

 

What is the ratio of surface area to volume?

 

 

diameter of baseball
cm

 

 

surface area of baseball
cm2

 

 

volume of baseball
cm3

 

 

What is the ratio of surface area to volume?

 

 

How does surface area and volume compare as objects get larger?

 

 

 

*After completing the table, answer the “to do” question (stated above) here. Explain your answer.

  

Research Links:

·   Webcytology Simulation - Create your own unicellular species

·   Cellular Biology - Altruis Biomedical Network

·   Biology 100 - Wayne's World

·   The Cell - Thinkquest

·   Cell Structure - Carroll College

·   Cell Biochemistry - Carroll College

·   Virtual Cell - Virtual Cell

·   The Cell Nucleus - University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

·   Cell Membranes - Texas A&M University

·   Cells Alive - By James A. Sullivan

·   Cell & Molecular Biology Online - Links by Pamela Gannon

·   Cell Biology Hypertextbook - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

·   Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology - Michigan State University

·   Cell Membrane Tutorial - The Biology Project

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Animal cells never have a cell wall.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Red blood cells do not have a nucleus.
They are produced in the "flat" bones of the body, live for about 120 days, and die without reproducing. Their sole purpose is to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.